American society is not nap (午睡) friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. "There's even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep". Nobody wants to be caught napping or found asleep at work. To quote a proverb: "Some sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness eleven. " Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. " We have to totally change our attitude toward napping", says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research. ? Last year a national commission led by Dement identified an "American sleep debt" which one member said was as important as the national debt, The commission was concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to recent reports, president Clinton is trying to take a half?hour snooze (打瞌睡) every afternoon. ? About 60 percent of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have "a midafternoon quiet phase"also called"a secondary sleep gate. "Sleeping 15 minutes to two hours in the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap. ? We Superstars of Snooze don't nap to replace lost shut?eye or to prepare for a night shift. Rather, we"snack"on sleep, whenever, wherever and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself have napped in buses, cars, planes and on boats; on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and museums.
1. It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is ______ .
A) unreasonable B) criminal C) harmful D) costly
2. The research done by the Dement commission shows that Americans ______ .
A) don't like to take naps
B) are terribly worried about their national debt
C) sleep less than is good for them
D) have caused many industrial and traffic accidents
3. The purpose of this article is to ______ .
A) warn us of the wickedness of napping
B) explain the danger of sleepiness
C) discuss the side effects of napping
D) convince the reader of the necessity of napping
4. The "American sleep debt"( Line 1, Para. 3) is the result of ______ .
A) the traditional misconception the Americans have about sleep
B) the new sleep policy of the Clinton Administration
C) the rapid development of American industry
D) the Americans' worry about the danger of sleepiness
5. The second sentence of the last paragraph tells us that it is ______ .
A) preferable to have a sound sleep before a night shift
B) good practice to eat something light before we go to bed
C) essential to make up for cost sleep
D) natural to take a nap whenever we feel the need for it
1、[答案及分析]：[A]事实辨认题。美国社会中被普遍接受的观点是过多的睡眠具有下列哪个特征。A项意为“不合理的”，B项意为“有罪的”，C项意为“有害的”，D项意为“代价高的”。根据第一段第一句和最后一句可知A恰当。因为美国人认为“nature requires seven”(生物本能需要7个小时)。
2、 [答案及分析]：[C]事实辨认题。问Dement Commission所做的研究表明了下列哪项事实。第三段说：去年，一个由Dement领导的国际委员会认为存在“美国人的睡眠欠债”，其中一个委员会成员认为该欠债跟国债一样重大。委员会很关注睡眠不足的危险……。显而易见C项正确。
Leaders Who Use Humour and Charm to Reach the Top
Humour and charm are a surprisingly powerful combination as a means of ascent in life.
I have met a number of entrepreneurs who have built fortunes on the back of their wit and general popularity -and not much else. They disarm us with self-deprecation, we enjoy their company-so why wouldn't we want to do business with them? Of course, it all has to be done well; sycophancy and flat jokes do not weave the same spell.
The British feel that some light relief amid the drudgery is essential for existence to be tolerable. It seems to be a cornerstone of our psychology and culture. In London, to say someone has no sense of humour is to condemn them utterly. Many important meetings I attend start with a little friendly banter to break the ice, a ritual to remind us that we are all human-rather than simply robots of commerce.
I am sure foreigners must think our levity is baffling. My defence is that Brits subscribe to Horace's view: "A jest often decides matters of importance more effectively and happily than seriousness."
Some years ago, a partner of mine practised what I called "management by laughter". He motivated and inspired by making the atmosphere at work fun, rather than the bullying and intimidation common in many workplaces.
But the 21st-century office can be a minefield for the amateur who enjoys a giggle. I was recently warned about a trap being sprung by a professional gang from eastern Europe. They plant an attractive female staff member in an organisation. At roughly the same time, a male co-conspirator also gets a job; the connection between them is unknown to the employer. After a little while, he sends a series of highly suggestive internet jokes to the pretty female. She complains of harassment and threatens to bring an embarrassing employment tribunal involving sexual discrimination-and, once she reveals that she has hired expert legal advisers and PR agents, the victim business settles quickly.
In these litigious, politically correct times, the perils of making cheap gags can be considerable. Recently, I attended a dinner at a trade conference. The speaker was a well-known executive who told a number of jokes in poor taste, some at the expense of influential figures in the room. Just as a vulgar best man's speech at a wedding can strike the wrong note, so I sensed as we chatted after the speech that the jibes would not be swiftly forgotten.
Some one once said: "Brains, integrity and force may be all very well, but what you need today is charm." This is the age of celebrity, even in the boardroom, and none of us is impervious to the presence of those legendary characters when they switch on the full blast of their glittering personality. Perhaps it is their reputation, perhaps their smile, perhaps their brilliance with words-or possibly their rapt attention.
I am often struck how often young children utter the phrase "Look at me!" They want appreciation, and fundamentally not much changes, even when we are 50. Genuine approval from the boss can taste better than anything-even a pay rise.
Are charm and a sense of humour acquired traits? They certainly improve with effort and practice. Ronald Reagan used his years in showbiz to hone his performance skills before succeeding in politics.
I have sat with stand-up comics before they go on stage. The most brilliant appear almost nonchalant, rather than rehearsed or anxious, and their acts are mostly learnt word-perfect yet appear spontaneous.
So it is with outstanding business leaders who persuade their teams to laugh and try harder: they apply themselves assiduously to the task. Most world-class chief executives possess charisma-really a captivating blend of charm and wit. And, believe me, they graft at it far more than they admit.
1. She complains of harassment and threatens to bring an embarrassing employment tribunal involving sexual discrimination-and, once she reveals that she has hired expert legal advisers and PR agents, the victim business settles quickly.
本句是一个复合句，主句是由and连接的两个并列的句子。第一个句子中， and连接两个并列的谓语， involving sexual discrimination现在分词短语作后置定语，修饰employment tribunal.第二个句子中，once引导时间状语从句，其中that引导宾语从句，作reveal的宾语。
2. Just as a vulgar best man's speech at a wedding can strike the wrong note, so I sensed as we chatted after the speech that the jibes would not be swiftly forgotten.
3. This is the age of celebrity, even in the boardroom. and none of us is impervious to the presence of those legendary characters when they switch on the full blast of their glittering personality.
本句是一个复合句。主句是由and连接的两个并列的句子This is...and... legendary characters. When引导时间状语从句。