(1) 简单介词，常用的有 at, in, on, about, across, before, beside, for , to, without 等。
(2) 复合介词，如 by means of, along with, because of, in front of, instead of 等。
(1) 和动词的搭配，如 agree with, ask for, belong to, break away from, care about 等。
(2) 和形容词的搭配，如 afraid of, angry with, different from, good at 等。
(3) 和名词的搭配，如 answer to , key to, reason for, cause of, visit to 等。
3、介词短语可以有自己的修饰语，这种修饰语通常有 right, just, badly, all, well, directly, completely 等少数几个副词。如：
He came right after dinner.
He lives directly opposite the school.
(1) at, on, in (表时间)
表示时间点用 at，如 at four o'clock, at midnight 等；表示不确定的时间或短期假日也用 at，如 at that time, at Christmas 等。
指某天用 on, 如 on Monday, on the end of November, 指某天的朝夕用 on，如on Friday morning, on the afternoon of September lst 等。
指长于或短于一天的时段用 in，如 in the afternoon, in February, in Summer, in 1999 等。
(2) between, among (表位置)
between 仅用于二者之间，但说三者或三者以上中的每两个之间的相互关系时，也用 between, 如
I'm sitting between Tom and Alice.
The village lies between three hills.
He is the best among the students.
(3) beside, besides
beside 意为"在……旁边"，而 besides 意为"除……之外"。如：
He sat beside me.
What do you want besides this?
(4) in the tree, on the tree
in the tree 指动物或人在树上，而 on the tree 指果实、树叶长在树上
(5) on the way, in the way, by the way, in this way
on the way 指在路上 in the way 指挡道
by the way 指顺便问一句 in this way 用这样的方法
(6) in the corner, at the corner
in the corner 指在拐角内 at the corner 指在拐角外
(7) in the morning, on the morning
in the morning 是一般说法 on the morning 特指某一天的早晨
(8) by bus, on the bus
by bus 是一般说法 on the bus 特指乘某一辆车
例1. Do you know any other foreign language ____ English?
A. except B. but C. beside D. besides
解析：A、B两项 except 等于but，意为"除了……"，C-beside 意为"在……旁边"，不符合题意。而D-besides, 意为"除了……之外，还有"。所以该题正确答案为D。该题意为：除了英语外，你还知道别的语言吗？
例2. He suddenly returned ____ a rainy night.
A. on B. at C. in D. during
解析：我们均知道，at night 这一短语，但如果night前有修饰词，表具体的夜晚，则要用介词 on 来修饰，故该题正确答案为A。
例3. I'm looking forward ____ your letter.
A. to B. in C. at D. on
解析：该题正确答案为A。look forward to 为固定搭配，意为"期望、盼望"。
(1) 并列连词用来连接并列关系的词、短语或分句，如 and, for, or, both … and, either … or, neither … nor 等。
(2) 从属连词用来引导从句，如 that, if, whether, when, after, as soon as 等。
(1) and 和，并且
They drank and sang all night.
(2) both … and 和， 既……也……
Both my parents and I went there.
(3) but 但是，而
I'm sad, but he is happy.
(4) either … or 或……或……， 要么……要么……
Either you're wrong, or I am.
(5) for 因为
I asked him to stay, for I had something to tell him.
(6) however 然而，可是
Af first, he didn't want to go there. Later, however, he decided to go.
(7) neither … nor 既不……也不
Neither my parents nor my aunt agrees with you.
(8) not only … but (also) 不但……而且……
He not only sings well, but also dances well.
(9) or 或者，否则
Hurry up, or you'll be late.
Are you a worker or a doctor?
(10) so 因此，所以
It's getting late, so I must go.
(11) although 虽然
Although it was late, they went on working.
(12) as soon as 一……就……
I'll tell him as soon as I see him.
(13) because 因为
He didn't go to school, because he was ill.
(14) unless 除非，如果不
I won't go unless it is fine tomorrow.
(15) until 直到……
He didn't leave until eleven. (瞬间动词用于 not … until 结构)
He stayed there until eleven.
(16) while 当……时候，而 (表示对比)
While I stayed there, I met a friend of mine. (while 后不可用瞬间动词)
My pen is red while his is blue.
(17) for 因为
He was ill, for he didn't come. (结论是推断出来的)
(18)s ince 自从……
I have lived here since my uncle left.
(19) hardly … when 一…… 就
I had hardly got to the station when the train left.
(20) as far as 就…… 来说
As far as I know, that country is very small.
You may walk as far as the lake. (一直走到湖那里)
例1. John plays football ____, if not better than, David.
A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as
解析：该题意为：John 踢足球如果不比 David 好的话，那也踢得和 David 一样好。 和…一样好为 as well as. 故该题正确答案为B.
例2. She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.
A. when B. where C. which D. while
解析：该处意为"然而"，只有 while 有此意思，故选D。
例3. Would you like a cup of coffee ____ shall we get down to business right away?
A. and B. then C. or D. otherwise
(1) 表示经常发生的动作或现在存在的状态，常与 sometimes, always, often, every day 等时间状语连用。如：Sometimes, we go swimming after school.
(2) 表示客观真理、科学事实等。如：The earth goes round the sun.
(1) 表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作，常与 now, at present 等时间状语连用。如：
What are you doing now?
(2) 和 always, continually 等连用，表一种经常反复的动作，常含有某种情感。如：
He is always doing good deeds.
主要表示动作发生在过去，对现在仍有影响，或动作一直延续到现在，或可能还要继续下去，常与just, already, so far, once, never 等词连用。如：Have you ever been to Beijing?
表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或存在的状态，常与 tomorrow, next year 等连用。如：
I'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning.
We're going to see a film next Monday.
表示在过去某一时间或某一阶段内发生的动作或存在的状态，常与 yesterday, last year, in 1998, a moment ago 等词连用。如：It happened many years ago.
What were you doing this time yesterday?
The train had already left before we arrived.
He said he would come, but he didn't.
9、被动语态 被动语态的时态，以 give 为例。
时／式 一般 进行 完成
现在 am is given are am is being are has been given have
过去 was given were was being given were had been given
将来 shall be given will shall have been given will
过去将来 should be given would should have been given would
例1. I learned that her father ____ in 1950.
A. had died B. died C. dead D. is dead
解析：该题正确答案为B。从句中的谓语动词动作虽然发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前，但因从句中有明确的过去时间状语in 1950, 所以不用过去完成时态，而用一般过去时态。
例2. The five-year-old girl ____ by her parents.
A. is looked B. has looked for
C. is being looked for D. has been looked