eople in the US and France. The drug stops the body releasing (释放) chemicals that fix memories in the brain. So far the research has suggested that only the emotional effects of memories may be reduced, not that the memories are erased.
The research has caused a great deal of argument. Some think it is a bad idea, while others support it. Supporters say it could lead to pills that prevent or treat soldiers’ troubling memories after war. They say that there are many people who suffer from terrible memories. “Some memories can ruin people’s lives. They come back to you when you don’t want to have them in a daydream or nightmare. They usually come with very painful emotions,” said Roger Pitman, a professor of psychiatry (精神病学) at Harvard Medical School. “This could relieve a lot of that suffering.”
But those who are against the research say that changing memories is very dangerous because memories give us our identity (特质). They also help us all avoid the mistakes of the past. “All of us can think of bad events in our lives that were horrible at the time but make us who we are. I’m not sure we’d want to wipe those memories out,” said Rebecca Dresser, a medical ethicist (伦理学家). Some people fear that although the drug would first be used in only very serious cases, it would become more and more common. “People always have the ability to misuse science,” said Joseph LeDoux, a New York University memory researcher. “All we want to do is help people have better control of memories.”
47. No matter how people think about this pill, the scientists’ intention to develop this pill is _______.
A. terrible B. bad
C. doubtful D. worth praising
48. What does the word “relieve” in the sentence “This could relieve a lot of that suffering”.
A. increase B. keep
C. reduce D. strengthen
49. Joseph LeDoux thinks that _______.
A. the terrible memories are really existence, we should respect and control them
B. the terrible memories are easy to forget, we needn’t worry about them
C. the terrible memories can do good to us, we shouldn’t forget them
D. if we forget terrible memories we will forget everything, so we can’t develop pills to reduce or erase them
50. What is the best title of this article？
A. Pills help forget terrible memories
B. Pills help forget the past
C. How to forget the past D. How terrible memories do harm to us
It’s great to go on vacation, but it’s also nice to come home. Migrating (迁徙) birds seem to feel the same way. Birds such as black-tailed godwits (黑尾塍鹬), a migrating bird that can be found in Europe, Asia, north Africa and north Australia, fly south every winter. Then, they return home to spend the summer months with their life long partner.
Now, scientists have found, pairs of godwits often return to their summer breeding (繁殖) grounds within three days of each other, even though they spend the entire winter apart. It’s as if they arranged the date that they would meet up again.
Researchers in England, put coloured leg bands on the birds. Then, they asked birdwatchers around Europe to report by email when and where they saw the birds during the winter.
The simplest way for birds to return at the same time would be to spend the winter together. After all, if they’re in different places, they can’t call each other on the phone and talk about when they’ll meet again.
But, the survey found that couples usually spent their winters in different countries up to 1,000 kilometres apart. One male, for example, spent the winter on the coast of Ireland while his mate was in France.
These findings are important for protecting the birds, scientists say. Black-tailed godwits live for up to 25 years. They spend their summers in Iceland, where they mate, but they spread all over other parts of Europe in winter. Once a pair mates, there’s a 90 per cent chance that they’ll return to mate with each other again the next year. So, protection of their wide web of holiday destinations (目的地) is very important.
How do the birds arrange their date of return? Unless scientists find their feathered cellphones, that question will remain a mystery.
51. It seems that pairs of godwits fly south every winter _________.
A. to find love B. to find food
C. to breed D on holiday
52. According to the article, black-tailed godwits _______ their mates.
A. don’t love
B often turn against
C. often forget
D. are faithful to
53. When black-tailed godwits come home at the same time, it is very important for people to _______.
A. give them enough food
B. protect them
C. kill them D. live with them