二、 定 语 从 句
(一) 知识概要 ?
定语从句并不属于中考范围,但由于作者在多年的教学中体会到,这一语法现象影响了许多学生自学英语。这些学生一般是成绩较好的学生,想进行大量阅读来提高自己的英语水平,但总是碰到一些问题,百思不得其解。苦于自己的水平只限于初中水平,无法提高,但各种补习班又都是为一些水平较差的学生开设的,所以又投师无门。为了解决这部分学生的学习困难,也为那些有志青年铺平学习上的道路,特用这一节讲述定语从句,不是从语法上讲述,而是从阅读理解方面去讲述。可供同学们在学习时参考。这会对你的英语学习起到事半功倍的作用。?对于形容词我们已十分熟悉了,如: a good book, 形容词 good 用来修饰书 book。 我们也可以用一个句子来修饰名词,这种句子叫做形容词性从句,它起修饰名词的作用,又被叫做定语从句(The attributive clause)。但有一点不同的是这个从句不是像形容词那样放于名词前,而是放在名词之后。它所修饰的名词又被叫作先行词,如: Do you know the scientist who gave us the talk this afternoon? 这句中的主句是 Do you know the scientist? (你知道那位科学家吗?)而 who gave us the talk this afternoon (他今天下午给我们作的报告。)是定语从句。所以这两句话合为一体即是:你认识今天下午给我们作报告的那位科学家吗?这里 scientist 叫作先行词,而 who 叫作定语从句的引导词。 who 在定语从句中起主语的作用, who 的数与它的先行词相同。又如: You must do everything that I do? 这里先行词是 everything, 而 that I do 是定语从句,此句应译为:你必须作我所作的一切。 that 叫作定语从句的引导词,在句中作 do 的宾语。?引导定语从句的引导词有关系代词: that, which, who, whom, whose 和关系副词 when, where, why, how。不论关系代词还是关系副词,都应放于先行词和定语从句之间,起联系作用,但它们都要在定语从句中起语法作用,充当一个成份。如关系代词在定语从句中不是作主语便是作宾语,而关系副词则是作状语。我们先来看关系代词的用法。① that 的先行词可以是人也可以是物。如: A plane is a machine that can fly? 这里先行词是 machine 而 that 是关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。这句译为:飞机是一种会飞的机器。又如: I like the book (that) you lent me yesterday? 这里先行词是 book, 关系代词用 that, 它在定语从句中作 lend (借)的宾语。要注意的是关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略,即: I like the book you lent me yesterday?② which 关系代词的先行词只能是物。它在定语从句中作主语或宾语,如: The book shop is a shop which sells books? 这里 shop 是先行词, which 在从句中作主语。又如: The book (which) I read last night was wonderful? 这里主句是 The book was wonderful? 而定语从句是修饰主句的主语 book, 即我昨晚读的那本书,which 在定语从句中作 read 的宾语,可以省略。?③ who, whom, whose? who 在定语从句中作主语, whom 是 who 的宾格,在定语从句中作宾语,而 whose 则是形容词性物主代词,在从句中作定语,如:The man who visited our school yesterday is an American friend? 昨天参观我们学校的人是一位美国朋友。 Who 在定语从句中作主语。又如: Who's that woman (whom) you just talked to ? 你刚才与之谈话的那个女人是谁?而 whom 作定语从句中介词 to 的宾语,可以省略,而在现代英语中,句首的 whom 也常常可用 who代替。?This is our classmate, Mary, whose home is not far from our school? 这是我们的同学玛丽,她的家离我们学校不远。?为了便于理解,我们来看看是如何将两句话并为一句话的。?
1. I saw the man.? He closed the door??
I saw the man who (that) closed the door?
2. The girl is happy? She won the race??
The girl who won the race is happy?
3. The students are from China? They sit in the front row??
The students who sit in the front row are from China?
(要注意的是先行词是 students 则 who 的数也应看作复数。)?
4. We are studying sentences? They contain adjective dause??
We are studying sentences that (which) contain adjective dause? ?
5. The taxi driver was friendly? He took me to the airport??
The taxi driver who took me to the airport was friendly? ?
6. The book was good? I read it??
The book that I read was good??
The book I read was good? ?
7. The people were very nice? We visited them yesterday??
The people we visited yesterday were very nice?
8. The man called the police? His wallet was stolen??
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police?
9. I come from a country? Its history goes back thousands of years??
I come from a country whose history goes back thousands of years?
10. I have to call the man? I picked up his umbrella after the meeting??
I have to call the man whose umbrella I picked up after the meeting?
关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:
That was the room in which we had lived for ten years? 或可以写作:
That was the room which we had lived in for ten years??
He was the man whom(who) you were looking for? 要注意的是此句的关系代词 whom 可以用主格取代,而 look for 是短语动词也不可将 for 放于定语从句之前。that 作关系代词作介词宾语时,不能紧跟介词,而只能将介词置于定语从句的后面。如: The man that we were talking about has come to our school? 这时不可用 about that … 请看下面例句:?
1. The meeting was interesting? I went to it??
The meeting that I went to was interesting? ?
2. The man was very kind? I talked to him yesterday??
The man who I talked to yesterday was very kind?
3. I must thank the people? I got a present from him??
I must thank the people who I got a present from?
4. The picture was beautiful? She was looking at it??
The picture that (which) she was looking at was beautiful?
5. The man is standing over there? I told you about him??
The man who I told you about is standing over there?
除关系代词外,还有关系副词, when, where, why, 其中 when用来指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。如: I never forget the day when I first came to the Great Wall? 而 where 则指地点,如: This is the house where the old man lives? 请看下面例句:
1. The city was beautiful? We spent our vacation there??
The city where we spent our vacation was beautiful?
2. That is the restaurant? I will meet you there??
That is the restaurant where I will meet you?
3. The town is small? I grew up there??
The town where I grew up is small?
4. That is the drawer? I keep my newpapers there??
That is the drawer where I keep my newspapers?
5. Monday is the day? We will come then??
Monday is the day? When we will came?
6. 7∶05 is the time My plane arrives then??
7∶05 is the time when my plane arrives?
7. 1960 is the year? The revolution took place then??
1960 is the year when the revolution took place?
8. July is the month? The weather is usually the hottest then??
July is the month when the weather is usually the hottest? ?
① 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,如果去掉的话,主句的意思就不完整,意义就表述不明。这种句型一般定语从句紧接先行词,如:?I was the only person in my office who was invited??
② 非限制性定语从句。它与主句的关系不十分密切,只是对其附加说明,也就是讲即便去掉定语从句,句意也不受影响,仍然清晰明了。这样的定语从句要在它和主句之间加一逗号分开。且关系代词不引导这种非限制性定语从句,如: Abraham Lincoln, who led the United States through these years, was shot on April 14, 1865 at a theatre in washington? D. C. 又如:Galileo lived in the city of Pisa, where there is a leaning tower about 180 feet high???
(二) 正误辨析 ?
[误] I won't tell you the name of the person who teach me English? ?
[正] I won't tell you the name of the person who teaches me English? ?
[析] 在定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,从它本身看不出其数的形式,这时要由它的先行词决定。这里who 应由 the person 单数决定,应该用单数谓语动词。又如:I who am a student? want to find a spare time job?这里的 who 应与 I 是一致的,所以其谓语动词应该用am。?
[误] We talked about the things and the people who we met during the Second World War? ?
[正] We talked about the things and the people that we met during the Second World War? ?
[析] 这里的关系代词不要用 who, 因为其先行词有两个一个是 things (物),而另一个是people (人),这时既不可用 who, 又不可用 which, 因前者只能用于先行词是人的情况下,而后者则用于先行词是物的情况下,所以只能用 that, 因为它的先行词既可以是人又可以是物。?
[误] The book, that I bought yesterday, was very good?
[正] The book, which I bought yesterday, was very good? ?
[析] 先行词与定语从句被逗号分割开来时,即作为非限制性定语从句。在非限制性定语从句中 which, when, who, whom, where, when, whose 等都可以和限制性定语从句中的作用一样,而独有 that 不易用于非限制性定语从句。?
[误] The dictionary which I lent it yesterday is a very useful tool? ?
[正] The dictionary which I lent yesterday is a very useful tool? ?
[误] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one which comes from America
[正] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one who comes from America
[析] the one, anyone, those 作代词并且是指某人、物时,其关系代词不能用 which 应用 who。?
[误] This is the room in that the old man lives? ?
[正] This is the room in which the old man lives? ?
[正] This is the room which the old man lives in? ?
[正] This is the room that the old man lives in? ?
[析] that 不能紧跟在介词后作介词宾语,但如果介词不前置仍放于句尾,则可用 that 作引导词,而且可以省略。如: This is the room the old man lives in??
[误] I can do everything which is good for you? ?
[正] I can do everything that is good for you? ?
[析] 在先行词是 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 等不定代词时,虽然它们指的是物体,但不要用 which 而用 that 作定语从句的引导词。?
[误] The only thing which the students can do is studying hard? ?
[正] The only thing that the students can do is studying hard? ?
[析] 在先行词前有 only, any, few, little, no, all, one of 等词修饰时,虽然先行词指的是物,也不要用 which 作关系代词,而要用 that。?
[误] This is the first American film which I've ever seen? ?
[正] This is the first American film that I've ever seen? ?
[析] 在先行词是序数词,或由序数词修饰时,其关系代词不可用 which? 这样的用法还有在形容词最高级修饰的先行词之后,如: This is the best book that I have ever seen
[误] He is from Africa, that we can see from the colour of the skin? ?
[正] He is from Africa, as we can see from the colour of the skin? ?
[析] 当 as 或 which 引导非限制性定语从句时,它可能没有明确的先行词,它们所指代的是前面整个句子。如例题应译为他是从非洲来这个事情是可以从其肤色上看出的。?《09年中考英语单词分类复习策略10》由出国留学网liuxue86.com编辑整理