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  The word science is heard so often in modern times that almost everybody has some notion of its meaning. On the other hand, its definition is difficult for many people. The meaning of the term is confused, but everyone should understand its meaning and objectives. Just to make the explanation as simple as possible, suppose science is defined as classified knowledge (facts).

  Even in the true sciences distinguishing fact from fiction is not always easy. For this reason great care should be taken to distinguish between beliefs and truths. There is no danger as long as a clear difference is made between temporary and proved explanations. For example, hypotheses and theories are attempts to explain natural phenomena. From these positions the scientist continues to experiment and observe until they are proved or discredited. The exact status of any explanation should be clearly labeled to avoid confusion.

  The objectives of science are primarily the discovery and the subsequent understanding of the unknown. Man cannot be satisfied with recognizing that secrets exist in nature or that questions are unanswerable; he must solve them. Toward that end specialists in the field of biology and related fields of interest are directing much of their time and energy.

  Actually, two basic approaches lead to the discovery of new information. One, aimed at satisfying curiosity, is referred to as pure science. The other is aimed at using knowledge for specific purposes—for instance, improving health, raising standards of living, or creating new consumer products. In this case knowledge is put to economic use. Such an approach is referred to as applied science.

  Sometimes practical-minded people miss the point of pure science in thinking only of its immediate application for economic rewards. Chemists responsible for many of the discoveries could hardly have anticipated that their findings would one day result in applications of such a practical nature as those directly related to life and death. The discoveries of one bit of information opens the door to the discovery of another. Some discoveries seem so simple that one is amazed they were not made years ago; however, one should remember that the construction of the microscope had to precede the discovery of the cell. The hosts of scientists dedicating their lives to pure science are not apologetic about ignoring the practical side of their discoveries; they know from experience that most knowledge is eventually applied.

  6. We may simply define science as

  [A] the study of unrelated subjects.

  [B] an attempt to explain natural phenomena.

  [C] the study of related fields.

  [D] labelled knowledge.

  7. A scientist interested in adding to our general knowledge about oxygen would probably call his approach

  [A] applied science.

  [B] agriculture science.

  [C] pure science.

  [D] environmental science.

  18. Pure science, leading to the construction of a microscope,

  [A] may lead to antiscientific, “impure” results.

  [B] necessarily precedes applied science, leading to the discovery of a cell.

  [C] is not always as pure as we suppose.

  [D] necessarily results from applied science and the discovery of a cell.

  9. On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

  [A] Scientists engaged in theoretical research should not be blamed for ignoring the practical side of their discoveries.

  [B] Today few people have any notions of the meaning of science.

  [C] In science, it is not difficult to distinguish fact from fiction.

  [D] Practical-minded people can understand the meaning and objectives of pure science.

  10. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] The Nature of Science and Scientists

  [B] Biology and the Science and Scientist

  [C] Hypotheses and Theories

  [D] On Distinguishing Fact from Fiction


  1.hypothesis n.假说,假设,前提

  2.discredit v.证明…是假的;不信,怀疑n.信用的丧失

  3.status n.情形,状态;地位,资格

  4.open the door to 为…提供方便

  5.microscepe n.显微镜

  6.apologetic a.表示歉意的;道歉的


  1.Chemists (responsible for many of the discoveries) could hardly have anticipated that their findings would [one day] result in applications (of such a practical nature as those (directly related to life and death)).

  【分析】复合句。本句的主干为Chemists...could hardly have anticipated that...,that后面引导宾语从句;其中形容词短语responsible for many of the discoveries此处为主语chemists的定语;在宾语从句中,句子主语为their findings,谓语动词为result in,介词of引导的短语作宾语applications的定语。


  2.(Some) discoveries seem so simple [that one is amazed they were not made years ago]; however, one should remember that the construction of the microscope had to precede the discovery of the cell.



  3.The hosts of scientists (dedicating their lives to pure science) are not apologetic about ignoring the practical side of their discoveries; they know [from experience] that most knowledge is eventually applied.

  【分析】复合句。注意分号的作用,此处为解释作用,即后一个分句同前一个分句之间是解释关系。前一个分句为主系表结构,句子的主干为scientists are not apologetic,其中分词短语dedicating their lives to pure science为主语scientists的定语;后一个分句中that引导了一个宾语从句。





  【解析】选[D]。事实细节题。文章第一段中指出,给科学下一个准确的定义并不容易,且不同的人对此有不同的概念。第一段最后一句中,作者指出,为了尽可能简单地解释什么是科学,姑且假设科学“is defined as classified knowledge(facts)”,由此可见选项[D]正确。选项[A]与选项[C]文中未提及;而选项[B]比较片面,因为在第三段中指出,科学的研究目标是发现并理解所有未知的事物,而选项中的“natural phenomena”只是科学研究对象的一部分,故错误。


  【解析】选[C]。推理判断题。从文中第三段来看,科学的研究目标是发现并了解未知的事物;第四段中指出,纯粹科学的目的是“aimed at satisfying curiosity”,即前文中所说的为了揭开自然界的秘密,发现新的信息和知识;而将知识用于某个特殊的目的,比如“improving health, raising standards of living, or creating new consumer products”等等,称为应用科学;由此可见,若科学家研究的目的仅仅是为了增加人们有关氧气的知识,则他的研究应当属于“pure science”的范畴,故选项[C]正确。选项[A]错误。选项[B]和选项[D]在文中未提及,故错误。


  【解析】选[B]。事实细节题。文章在最后一段讲述纯粹科学“pure science”同应用科学之间的关系时指出,对某一种新信息的发现往往会为另一个新发现打开方便之门,紧接着在后面以显微镜发明和细胞的发现为例来说明这一论点,指出“the construction of the microscope ”必须在发现细胞之前,也就是说,显微镜的发明为发现细胞提供了条件,读者可能注意到在这个句子中,作者用了“had to”这个词,故选项[B]符合题意。选项[A]与选项[C]在原文中未提及;选项[D]“产生于应用科学与细胞的发现”同文中表述正相反,故错误。


  【解析】选[A]。事实细节题。文章最后一段中指出,做出发明或者有新发现的科学家们不必为自己“ignoring the practical side of their discoveries”而感到抱歉,因为他们知道这些发明迟早都会应用到实践中去,故选项[A]正确。选项[B]不正确,因为与文中第一段第一句话意思相反;文章第二段第一句中指出,即使在真正的科学界,区分事实与虚构往往也不是一件容易的事情,故选项[C]错误;文章最后一段中指出,“practical-minded people”理解纯粹科学时,往往只想到“its immediate application for economic rewards”,故选项[D]不正确。









  After their 20-year-old son hanged himself during his winter break from the University of Arizona five years ago, Donna and Phil Satow wondered what signs they had overlooked, and started asking other students for answers.

  What grew from this soul searching was Ulifeline (www. ulifeline, org), a website where students can get answers to questions about depression by logging on through their universities. The site has been adopted as a resource by over 120 colleges, which can customize it with local information, and over 1.3 million students have logged on with their college IDs.

  “It’s a very solid website that raises awareness of suicide, de-stigmatizes mental illness and encourages people to seek the help they need,” said Paul Grayson, the director of counseling services at New York University, which started using the service nearly a year ago.

  The main component of the website is the Self-E-Valuator, a self-screening program developed by Duke University Medical Center that tests students to determine whether they are at risk for depression, suicide and disorders like anorexia and drug dependence. Besides helping students, the service compiles anonymous student data, offering administrators an important window onto the mental health of its campus.

  The site provides university users with links to local mental health services, a catalog of information on prescription drugs and side effects, and access to Go Ask Alice, a vast archive developed by Columbia University with hundreds of responses to anonymously posted inquiries from college students worldwide. For students concerned about their friends, there is a section that describes warning signs for suicidal behavior and depression.

  Yet it is hard to determine how effective the service is. The anonymity of the offline service can even play out as a negative. “There is no substitute for personal interaction,” said Dr. Lanny Berman, executive director of the American Association of Suicidology, based in Washington.

  Ulifeline would be the first to say that its service is no replacement for an actual therapist. “The purpose is to find out if there are signs of depression and then direct people to the right places,” said Ron Gibori, executive director of Ulifeline.

  Mrs. Satow, who is still involved with Ulifeline, called it “a knowledge base” that might have prevented the death of her son, Jed. “If Jed’s friends had known the signs of depression, they might have seen something,” she said.

  16.The son of Mr. and Mrs. Satow is mentioned to

  [A] introduce the topic of a website called Ulifeline

  [B] show the suffering of Mr. and Mrs. Satow

  [C] describe the Satows’ confusion over their son’s death

  [D] report the suicide of a young man

  17. Why do many colleges adopt the website Ulifeline?

  [A] It provides their students with campus information

  [B] It offers medical treatment to students in mental disorder

  [C] It encourages their students to seek advice about depression

  [D] It gives their students various help they may need

  18. Which of the following is true of Go Ask Alice?

  [A] It is a kind of side effect caused by some prescription drugs.

  [B] It counsels college students on mental problems

  [C] It is a collection of medical responses from students the world over

  [D] It describes the various signs of mental disorders

  19. The sentence “Yet it is…the service is.”(Line 1, Para. 6) shows that

  [A] a therapist’s office is the first place for the depressed to go.

  [B] the help given by the web service is doubtful.

  [C] doctors have expressed a negative view of the service.

  [D] only actual therapist can ensure adequate treatment.

  20. To which of the following is Mrs. Satow likely to agree?

  [A] Jed’s friends can prevent her son’s death

  [B] Her son’s suicide is unavoidable

  [C] Ulifeline is a worthwhile website

  [D] Depression is the final cause of suicides


  1.de-stigmatize v.减少歧视

  2.anorexia n.食欲减退,厌食

  3.anonymous a.匿名的

  4.side effect 副作用

  5.archive n.档案文件vt.存档

  6.suicidology n.自杀学


  1.“It’s a very solid website (that raises awareness of suicide, de-stigmatizes mental illness and encourages people to seek the help they need),” said Paul Grayson, {the director of counseling services at New York University}, (which started using the service nearly a year ago).

  【分析】复合句。主句的宾语是直接引语,包含that引导的定语从句,修饰website;the director of…作Paul Grayson的同位语,之后which引导的非限制性定语从句修饰New York University。

  【译文】Paul Grayson认为,“这是一个很不错的网站,它能提高对自杀的警惕,减少对精神疾病的歧视,鼓励人们寻求帮助,”他是纽约大学的咨询服务部主任,一年前开始使用该网站的服务。

  2.The main component (of the website) is the Self-E-Valuator, {a self-screening program (developed by Duke University Medical Center) (that tests students to determine whether they are at risk for depression, suicide and disorders like anorexia and drug dependence).}

  【分析】复合句,本句的主干结构是The main component is the Self-E-Valuator。a self-screening program…是Self-E-Valuator的同位语,其中developed by…过去分词短语作定语,that引导的定语从句修饰program,该定语从句又包含whether引导的宾语从句。


  3.The site provides university users with links (to local mental health services, a catalog of information on prescription drugs and side effects, and access to Go Ask Alice), {a vast archive (developed by Columbia University) [with hundreds of responses to anonymously posted inquiries from college students worldwide].}

  【分析】简单句,本句的主干结构是The site provides university users with links。to local…Go Ask Alice作links的定语,a vast archive…作Go Ask Alice的同位语。


  本文主要论述了Ulifeline这一网站给学生提供的帮助。第一段举了Phil Satow夫妇二十岁儿子自缢身亡的例子,第二至第五段主要论述Ulifeline的组成及功能;最后三段是对网站的评价。







  【解析】选[B]。事实细节题。依据第五段首句Go Ask Alice是一个由哥伦比亚大学开发的巨大的档案库,含有数百个对世界各地大学生匿名咨询的答复。结合上文可知Go Ask Alice是一个给学生提供健康咨询的档案库,所以答案为[B]。[A]本身说法错误;文中只是说档案库包含匿名咨询的答复,没有说是medical response,排除[C];[D]文中没有提及。






  五年前的寒假,Donna和Phil Satow夫妇就读于亚利桑纳大学的20岁的儿子自缢身亡,从那以后,夫妻俩就一直想知道自己忽略了什么迹象,也向儿子的同学打听。

  [16]深刻的思索让人注意到了Ulifeline (www. Ulifeline. org),[17]大学生们可在学校登录该网址咨询关于抑郁的问题。120多所高校使用该网址,并增添了些学校信息,130多万大学生用学生证在该网站注册。

  Paul Grayson认为,“这是一个很不错的网站,它能提高对自杀的警惕,减少对精神疾病的歧视,鼓励人们寻求帮助,”他是纽约大学的咨询服务部主任,一年前开始使用该网站的服务。



  [19]然而很难评估这种服务的效果,匿名在线服务甚至会起到消极作用,位于华盛顿的美国自杀协会执行主任Dr. Lanny Berman就说,“这种网站咨询不能代替互动的当面咨询。”

  [19]Ulifeline将首先承认,网站咨询不能代替真正的理疗师。Ulifeline的执行主任Ron Gibori说,“我们的目的是帮助学生发现抑郁倾向,然后指导他们到合适的地方治疗。”

  [20]Mrs. Satow仍然关注着Ulifeline,她称之为“知识库”,这个网站本可以阻止她儿子Jed的死亡。她说,“如果Jed的同学知道抑郁的倾向,他们本可以发现Jed的问题。”







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