1) 一般形式:He decided to work harder in order to catch up with the others.
被动形式: He preferred to be assigned some heavier work to do.
2) 完成形式:He pretended not to have seen me.
被动形式:The book is said to have been translated into many languages.
3)不定式充当名词功能---To see is to believe.
1)感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel
+ do 表示动作的完整性,真实性;
+ doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
I saw him working in the garden yesterday.
" 感官动词后面接形容词而不是副词:The cake tastes good; It feels comfortable.
2) 使役动词 have bid make let 等词后不定式要省略但同1)一样被动以后要还原to
I 'd like to have John do it.
I have my package weighed.
Paul doesn't have to be made to learn.
3) help help sb do help sb to do help do help to do
want,wish,hope,manage,promise,refuse,pretend,plan, offer,decide,agree,expect allow sb to do, cause sb to do , permit sb to do, enable sb to do
force sb to do. be more likely to do love to do warn sb to do be able to do
be ambitious to do. begin to do . start to do
We agreed _______ here,but so far she hasn't turned up yet.(NMET
A.having met B.meeting C.to meet D.to have met (Key:C)
accustom (oneself) to; be accustomed to; face up to; in addition to; look forward to; object to; be reduced to; resign oneself to; be resigned to; resort to; sink to; be used to; be alternative to; be close/closeness to; be dedication/dedicated to; be opposition/opposed to; be similarity/similar to.
He needs (a lot of) encouraging.
二. 动名词: 具有动作性特征的名词
1)是名词 seeing is believing
2)具有动词性特征可以带宾语 starving troops is necessary.
一般形式:I don't like you smoking.
完成形式:I regret not having taken your advice.
被动形式:This question is far from being settled.
I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon.(MET 1992)
A.you to call B.you call C.you calling D.you're calling(Key:C your calling 也对)
I regret not having taken your advice.
admit; appreciate; avoid; celebrate; consider; contemplate; defer; delay; deny; detest; discontinue; dislike; dispute; enjoy; it entails; escape; excuse; explain; fancy; feel like; finish; forgive; can't help; hinder; imagine; it involves; keep; it means; mention; mind; miss; it necessitates; pardon; postpone; practice; prevent; recall; report; resent; resist; risk; suggest; understand...
it's no good; it's no/little/hardly any/ use; it's not/hardly/scarcely use; it's worthwhile; spend money/time; there's no; there's no point in; there's nothing worse than; what's the use/point...
remember, forget, try, stop, go on, cease, mean后面用不定式和-ing形式,意义截然不容。
I remembered to post the letters. (指未来/过去未来的动作)
I remembered posting/having posting the letters (我记得这个动作)
I regret to inform you that… 我很遗憾地通知你…
I regretted having left the firm after twenty years. 为了"二十年前的离开"而遗憾。
try to 努力 You really must try to overcome your shyness.
try -ing 试验 Try practicing five hours a day.
I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to. [打算、想]我想去,但我父亲不让我去。
To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. [意味着]赠加工资意味着增加购买力。
I prefer to wait here. (所以啊,你不介意的话,我就等下去。)
I prefer waiting here.(我正在这里等,我就喜欢这么做。)
I prefer swimming to cycling. (这个句子里面就不能用不定式了。)
-The light in the office is still on.
-Oh,I forgot _______ .(MET 1991)
A.turning it off B.turn it off C.to turn it off D.having turned it off(Key:C)
-You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
-Well,now I regret _______ that.(NMET 1995)
A.to do B.to be doing C.to have done D.having done(Key:D)
1)一般式: Do you see the man talking to the dean(主任)? (与谓语动词同步发生)
2)完成形式:Not having made adequate preparations, they failed. (发生谓语动词之前)
3)完成被动形式:Having been adapted, the script seems perfect.( 发生谓语动词之前且表示被动)
1) 过去分词表示被动:Fight no battle unprepared.
2)过去分词的进行形式:You'll find the topic being discussed everywhere. (强调正在被做)